1. Jesus was born in a stable.
Luke is the biblical author who tells us the family lived in Nazareth and only traveled to Bethlehem, where Jesus was ultimately born.
However, even Luke doesn't mention a stable.
Luke tells us only that Mary gave birth in Bethlehem, and because the guest houses were all full, she had to lay her newborn in a feeding trough.
This statement could imply a stable, but a brief study of historical setting suggests otherwise. In 1st century urban Judea, animals would have been either tied along the street (where mangers were frequently erected), or kept in the courtyard of larger homes and buildings. There wouldn't have actually been a stable - at least nothing like what our religious art, plays, and songs like to imagine.
2. Moses wrote the Torah
And Moses didn't write any of it.
Despite both Jewish and Christian tradition attributing these books to Moses, historians have actually identified at least four different authorial strands within these books, with each strand representing not just a different historical era, but even more than one author within each strand. And none of the strands is as early as the life of the historical Moses, who probably lived three hundred years or more before the first word of the Torah was ever written.
3. The gospels were written by the disciples of Jesus
However, even the gospels of Matthew and John were not actually written by the disciples known as Matthew and John.
Historians date Matthew to sometime during the 80's CE, and John about a decade later, near the turn of the second century. This means both gospels were written more than fifty years after Jesus died, with John closer to seventy years. The likelihood that any of Jesus's companions were still alive and lucid enough to write deeply theologically-developed books in highly literate Greek is virtually non-existent. In fact, the chances that any of Jesus's poor, rural disciples were literate at all, even in their own native language of Aramaic, is highly unlikely, much less in the Greek language in which the gospels were written.
4. The Third Commandment refers to using God's name as a curse word
In the familiar King James Version, the Third Commandment tells us not to "take the name of the Lord thy God in vain."
Despite widespread belief that this verse is talking about the use of God's name as a swear or curse, it is actually referring to hypocrisy.
The original Hebrew phrase "take in vain" means to accept something falsely. (Source: Biblical Hebrew Lexicon.)
Thus, the commandment warns against falsely accepting the name of God - that is, it warns against claiming to be Godly when you aren't really Godly. It's a prohibition against hypocrisy. It has nothing to do with speaking certain exclamations.
5. The Bible teaches that humans either go to heaven or hell when they die
In essence, there is no afterlife in the theology of the Old Testament.
By the time the New Testament was written, afterlife theology of heaven and hell had become common within Judaism, and these beliefs therefore made their way into early Christianity as well. However, according to the various writers of the New Testament (especially Paul and the writers of 2 Peter and Revelation), heaven and hell await us not at death, but at the end of time.
At death, we humans simply go into the grave. There we stay until the end of time, when we are resurrected into new life. At that point, we either get cast into hell, or we are invited to live eternally on a renewed earth. As such, humans don't actually go to heaven in New Testament theology either. Instead, they are raised into new life to live in God's kingdom here on earth. Essentially, heaven comes to earth instead of humans going to heaven.
6. God is judgmental and vindictive in the Old Testament, but loving and kind in the New
For instance, in Psalm 86, God is described as "compassionate," "gracious," and "abounding in love." In the prophetic writings of Hosea, God is said to "love freely." In the book of 1 Chronicles, God's love is said to "endure forever." In fact, throughout the Old Testament, God is routinely described as loving, faithful, merciful, and forgiving. God does not banish anyone to hell, but instead is frequently portrayed as long-suffering and perpetually willing to overlook the failures and sins of his people.
In the New Testament, on the other hand, the gospel of Matthew refers multiple times to God damning sinners to hell, the book of Acts includes a scene where God strikes dead two Christians for withholding money from the Christian community, and the entire book of Revelation imagines God as an unspeakably angry deity of retribution and judgment.
7. In the Creation story, God created men first
It is not until the second chapter of Genesis, which consists of a completely different creation story written by a different person living in a different era, that "man" is said to have been created first, and "woman" created in man's image in order to be his "helper."
Scholars of the Bible have recognized for over a century that the account of creation found in the second chapter of Genesis (the story of Adam and Eve) is actually an earlier account than the one found in the first chapter (the six-day creation). At some point in antiquity, the two stories were merged together onto the same scroll and became the first and second chapters of the books we call Genesis.
8. The Jews crucified Jesus
Even if one accepts the gospel portrayal of the scheming Jewish leaders as historically accurate (a point that is widely questioned by historians), the Jewish leaders hardly represent the entirety of the Jewish people. In fact, the gospels portray the Jewish people as rallying around Jesus, following him throughout Galilee and into Jerusalem, and flocking to hear him teach. Even when one crowd of Jewish people calls for Jesus' crucifixion, it is only because the Jewish leaders "stirred them up" (Mark 15).
Sadly, this misconception of Jews as "Christ-killers" has led to centuries of fierce antisemitism that continues unabated to this day.
9. The Vatican has all the original copies of the books of the New Testament
No original manuscripts of any of the books of the New Testament still exist today. With the exception of 2 Peter, the New Testament was written between 50 and 100 CE. A few papyrus scraps of New Testament texts have turned up dated between 125 and 175 CE, but the oldest complete manuscript of a New Testament book goes back only to about the year 200, or more than a century after the original. The oldest copy of a complete New Testament is the so-called Codex Sinaiticus, which dates to about 350 CE.
10. Mary Magdalene was a prostitute
Luke also states that Jesus had cured Mary of demon possession, and this appears to be the basis for the belief that Mary was a prostitute. This idea goes back a long way: Pope Gregory I, who became pope in 590 and is known as Saint Gregory the Great, seems to have been the first to make this suggestion, writing that Mary Magdalene is the unnamed "sinful woman" from the gospel of Luke who anoints Jesus prior to his arrest. A similar story of anointing takes place in Mark, Matthew, and John as well, but only Luke implies that the woman was a prostitute. Only John names this woman, and he gives her name as Mary. This led Gregory to the rather spurious conclusion that the "sinful woman" and Mary Magdalene were one and the same.
Spurious or not, the idea persists.